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沈陽工程學院

畢 業 設 計 論 文

專 業班 級學生姓名指導教師 電氣工程及其自動化

電本125 黎農 葉鵬

: : : :

基于PSCAD的靜止無功器的仿真研究

Based on PSCAD simulation research of

static reactive power

系部名稱: 電力學院 專 業: 電氣工程及其自動化 班 級: 電本125 學生姓名: 黎農 學 號: 2012210529 指導教師: 葉鵬

基于PSCAD的靜止無功器仿真研究

摘要

在電力系統中,為了最大限度地發揮輸電線路的設計容量和提高系統運行穩定性,通常使用靜止無功補償器。其快速、平滑調節感性或容性無功功率,實現動態補償的特點使靜止無功補償器廣泛應用于輸電系統、工業網系統。TCR(晶閘管控制電抗器)-TSC(晶閘管投切電容器)型靜止無功補償器(SVC)是其中性能價格比相對很高的一種,它能夠自動跟蹤負荷的運行變化,通過連續控制晶閘管的導通角來快速調整并聯電抗器的輸出容量的大小,對提高穩態輸送容量、提高暫態穩定性、增強系統阻尼抑制低頻振蕩、緩解次同步諧振、預防電壓不穩定或控制電壓的波動、改善直流輸電系統的性能、提高負荷的功率因數等有顯著效果。

本文首先概述了國內外SVC的研究現狀及其主要裝置結構、功能的不同特點,介紹了靜止無功補償裝置的最新發展動態及研究成果。其次詳細分析了SVC系統的工作原理,設計了TCR-TSC型SVC控制模型系統。應用PSCAD 軟件針對TCR-TSC型SVC建立負荷補償的系統,以改善提高母線電壓為系統目標進行了仿真分析,對SVC進行發生嚴重故障時和校正功率因數時的線路補償動態特性作了仿真分析,并得出仿真波形和數據,比較了不加SVC和加入SVC兩種情況下的系統特性。

關鍵詞:無功補償,SVC,基本原理,PSCAD仿真

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沈陽工程學院畢業設計(論文)

Abstract

In power systems, to increase transmittable power along a line as far as possible, static var compensator(SVC) is used as usual. Its function of adjusting capacitive or inductive reactive power rapidly and smoothly,and the dynamic reactive power compensation make SVC is widely used by electricity transmission system and industrial network system.SVC of the type TCR-TSC is one of them, whoseratio of cost and performance has very high correspondingly. It call track the loads’running change automatically;adjust the TCR’s capacity output by controlling thethyristors’s passing angle continuously. It can have good effects in the terms ofraising transmission capacit, improving power systemstability,strengthening system damping, relieving system sub-synchronous oscillation, and preventing thevoltage fluctuation, and optimizing HVDC transmission system performance.

This paper firstly summarizes the current research of SVC device and its main structure and function of different characteristics, this paper introduces the static reactive compensation device of the latest developments and research results. Secondly analyzes the working principle of SVC system, designed the TCR-TSC type SVC control system model. Finally to a nodes system as an example, and using PSCAD software for TCR-TSC type SVC based load compensation system,respectively, to improve the power factor and improve the bus voltage of system target has carried on the simulation analysis, serious failure of SVC and power factor correction circuit simulation analysis of dynamic characteristics for the compensation, and draw the simulation waveforms and data, finally compared with no SVC and join the SVC system characteristics of two kinds of cases.

Key Words:static reactive power compensation, SVC, basic principle,PSCAD simulation

II

基于PSCAD的靜止無功器仿真研究

目錄

摘 要 ........................................................................ I Abstract .................................................................... II 1 緒論 .................................................................... - 1 - 1.1 本文的研究背景 ........................................................ - 1 - 1.1.1 研究背景 ............................................................. - 1 - 1.1.2 靜止無功補償技術的發展趨勢 ........................................... - 2 - 1.2 靜止無功補償器的應用 .................................................. - 3 - 1.2.1 國際上的SVC應用 .................................................... - 3 - 1.2.2 國內的SVC應用 ...................................................... - 3 - 1.3 本課題的研究內容 ...................................................... - 4 - 2 靜止無功補償器的基本原理及其數學模型 .................................... - 5 - 2.1 無功功率補償原理 ...................................................... - 5 - 2.2 靜止無功功率補償 ...................................................... - 5 - 2.2.1 并聯電容器補償無功功率原理 ........................................... - 5 - 2.2.2 并聯電容器補償無功功率的方式 ......................................... - 6 - 2.3 靜止無功功率補償器 .................................................... - 7 - 2.3.1 靜止無功補償器概述 ................................................... - 7 - 2.3.2 靜止無功補償器的類型 ................................................. - 7 - 2.4 靜止無功補償器的數學模型 .............................................. - 8 - 2.4.1TCR的數學模型及控制原理 ............................................. - 8 - 2.4.2TSC的數學模型及控制原理 ............................................. - 10 - 2.4.3TCR-TSC型靜止無功補償器數學模型及原理 .............................. - 11 - 3 基于PSCAD的靜止無功補償器的模型建立 ................................. - 12 - 3.1 模擬試驗平臺和仿真模型的搭建 ......................................... - 13 - 3.1.1 仿真工具軟件PSCAD/EMTDC簡介 ..................................... - 13 - 3.1.2PSCAD/EMTDC的主要功能 ............................................ - 13 - 3.1.3PSCAD/EMTDC的主要結構模型 ........................................ - 14 - 3.1.4PSCAD/EMTDC基本操作步驟 .......................................... - 15 - 3.2靜止無功補償器模型的建立 .............................................. - 15 - 3.2.1 協調控制策略 ........................................................ - 15 - 3.2.2 靜止無功補償器的主回路 .............................................. - 16 - 3.2.3SVC的控制系統模型 .................................................. - 18 - 3.3 本章小結 ............................................................. - 20 - 4 基于PSCAD的靜止無功補償器靜態特性研究 ............................... - 21 - 4.1TCR-TSC型靜止無功補償器補償系統 ..................................... - 21 - 4.2 含SVC系統在故障時的電壓穩定效果的仿真與分析 ........................ - 22 - 4.2.1 無功補償系統發生單相接地故障的仿真 .................................. - 23 - 4.2.2 含SVC系統發生單相接地故障的仿真 ................................... - 25 -

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