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Unit 4 Environment Analysis

環境分析

Environmental analysis involves the performance of chemical, physical, and biological measurements in an

environmental system. 在一個環境系統里,環境分析包括化學、物理以及生物測量的性能。This system may involve either the natural or the polluted environment, although the term “environmental analysis” is increasingly used to refer only to situations in which measurements are made of pollutants.這一系統不僅包含自然環境還包括污染環境,但是環境分析這個術語正在越來越多地用于污染物的測量.

Normally, four types of measurements are made: qualitative analysis to identify the species; quantitative analysis to determine how much of the species is present; speciation or characterization to establish details of chemical form and the manner in which the pollutant is actually present (such as being adsorbed onto the surface of a particle): and impact analysis in which measurements are made for the specific purpose of determining the extent to which an environmental impact is produced by the pollutants in question.通常,測量有四種形式:定性分析,以確定目前的物種;定量分析,以確定有多少物種存在;形態或性質,確定目前污染物的詳細的化學組分和方法(如被吸附到表面的粒子);和影響分析中測量的具體目的是確定在何種程度的環境影響所產生的污染物問題。

The overall objective of environmental analysis is to obtain information about both natural and pollutant species present in the environment so as to make a realistic assessment of their probable behavior.環境分析的目的是為了制造一個可行的現實的評估,去獲得目前在環境中自然和污染物的種類的相關信息,以便根據它們大致上的生活習慣做出切實的評估.In the case of pollutants, this involves assessment of their actual or potential environmental impact, which may be manifest in several ways. 有可能以多種方式顯示出的污染物方面涉及到那些實際貨物的評估或者潛在的環境影響。 Thus, a pollutant species may present a toxicological hazard to plants or animals. 因此,一個被污染的物種可能對植物或者動物造成危害。It may also cause contamination of resources (such as air, water, and soil) so that they cannot be utilized for other purposes. 它可能也會引起資源上的污染(比如大氣、水和土壤)以致他們沒法利用于其他目的。The effects of pollutants on materials, especially building materials, may be another area of concern and one which is often very visible and displeasing (for example, the defacing of ancient statues by sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere). 污染物對于原料的影響,特別是建筑材料,在某一區域是顯然可見的,讓人不愉快。(比如,大氣中二氧化硫對古建筑的損害)A further area of environmental impact involves esthetic depreciation such as reduces visibility, dirty skies, and unpleasant odors. 未來環境影響分析的領域將降低,比如能見度的下降、天空的污染和難聞的氣味。Finally, it is important to recognize that an environmental impact may not always be discernible by normal human perception so that detection may require sophisticated chemical or physical analysis.最后,重要的是認識到以人類正常的知覺可能難以辨別出環境之間的沖突,以致發現需要高精度的化學或者物理分析。 In order to provide a meaningful description of the general field of environmental analysis, this field may be

considered from three point pf view: the basic concepts underlying the reasons for and choice of the analysis which are normally performed; the available techniques and methodology commonly used; and the current status of capabilities in environmental analysis.為了提供環境分析的一般領域的一個意味深長的描述,這個領域也許從三個觀點考慮: 強調分析的選擇的原因為選擇執行通常的基本概念; 常用的有價值的技術和方法; 和在當前狀態下的環境分析能力。

Some of the philosophical concepts which form the bases for environmental analyses are as follow.一些來自環境分析基礎的哲學概念如下: Purpose目的

Collection and analysis of an environmental sample may be undertaken for the purpose of research or monitoring, or as a spot check. 為了研究或監測,一個環境樣品的收集和分析可能被快速進行。A spot check analysis is used to obtain rapid information about the approximate extent or nature of an environmental problem.快速監測分析常被用于獲得一個環境問題的大概范圍和性質的信息。 Authenticity真實性

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Whatever the information being sought, it is vitally important to obtain an authentic sample which represents the particular system being investigated. 無論什么被尋找的信息,得到代表被調查的特殊系統的一個可靠樣品是極為重要。In fact, the ability to obtain an authentic sample is probably one of the most difficult aspects of any

environmental analysis due to the considerable complexity and heterogeneity of most environmental systems.實際上,由于多數環境系統可觀的復雜和非均勻性,獲得一個可靠樣品大概是所有環境分析最困難的方面之一。 Detection limits察覺限制

A statement of the detection limits which can be attained by the analytical method being employed must always be included in providing the results of any environmental analysis. This is because considerable confusion exists about the meaning of a “zero” level of concentration. In fact, it is probably never possible to state that none of the atoms or

molecules of the species in question are present so that no true zero exists.察覺限制的一種陳述是被使用的分析方式所嘗試,必須總是被包含在提供所有環境分析結果里面。這是因為關于“0”濃度的含義存在相當大的混亂。事實上,這也許是不可能實現的:物種里面沒有原子或分子,所以沒有真正的“0”濃度存在。 Precision and accuracy精確性與準確性

In reporting an environmental analysis it is also necessary to specify the precision and accuracy associated with the measurements. 在報道一個環境分析也需要確切的指明等測量相關的精確性和準確性。Thus, many environmental measurements involve comparison of results obtained in different systems or under different conditions (of temperature, time, pollutant concentration, and so on) in the same system so that it is necessary to establish whether two numbers which are different are in fact indicative of different conditions.這樣,許多環境測量,包含獲得不同系統或同一系統不同條件結果的比較,以至于,有必要找出兩個不同類型數字在事實上是否不是不同條件的指示。 State of matter物質狀態

In making an environmental analysis it is necessary to designate the physical form of the species being analyzed. 在決策環境分析,標明所分析物種的物理構成是有必要的。Most simply, this involves the actual state of matter in which the species exists (whether it is solid, liquid, or gas) since many species (both inorganic and organic) may exist concurrently in different states. 最簡單的,由于許多物種(包括無機和有機)可能存在同時存在不同的形式,這涉及到存在的物種(無論是固體,液體或氣體)的實際存在形態的問題。For example, certain organic gases can exist either as gases or adsorbed onto the surface of solid particles, and the analytical procedures employed for determination of each form are quite different.例如,某些有機氣體可作為氣體或吸附表面的固體顆粒存在,而確定各種形式采用的分析程序是完全不同。

Element/compound distinction元素、化合物的區別

One of the most strongly emphasized aspects of environmental analysis involves the distinction between a chemical element and the chemical compound in which that element exists. 環境分析中強調的一個重要方面涉及到化學元素和有元素存在化學物的區別。It is appropriate to establish the chemical form in which a given element exists in an environmental sample rather than simply to specify the fact that the element is present at a given concentration. 它明確地給出化學物在存在環境中的元素構成而不是簡單給出元素現在的濃度。While such a concept is philosophically acceptable, analytical methodology has not reached the stage where specification of inorganic

compounds preset at trace level can readily be achieved.當這樣的概念在科學上被接受,分析方法還未達到很容易地精確測出無機化合物痕量存在的水平。 Particle surfaces顆粒表面

Where pollutant species are present in or associated with a condensed phase, it is sometimes necessary to establish whether the pollutant is part of the bulk system or present on its surface. 污染物存在或聯系凝結的狀態,有時需要去確定污染物是否在體積內或存在它表面.Such a consideration is particularly meaningful since material present on the surface of an airborne particle, for example, comes into immediate contact with the external environment, whereas that which is distributed uniformly throughout the particle is effectively present at a much lower concentration and can exert a much lower chemical intensity at the particle surface. 尤其意味深長的是因為物質存在與空中顆粒表面,例

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如直接與外部環境接觸,然而在顆粒表面分布均勻在整個顆粒是有效地呈現在更低濃度和可以發揮更低的化學活性.Since airborne particles can be inhaled, surface predominance can result in high localized concentrations of

chemical species at the points of particle deposition in the lung.由于可以吸入空中的顆粒,表面控制可以導致肺部顆粒沉積點化學物質局部濃度升高. Availability有效性

While not one of the analyses normally performed by analytical chemists, determination of the availability of a chemical species is often necessary. 雖然有效性分析通常不是由分析化學家進行的,但是確定化學物質的有效性是有必要的.To exert a meaningful environmental effect, a pollutant species must almost always enter solution. 為了更好發揮環境效果,一個污染物必須總是進入溶液.For instance, toxic compounds associated with airborne particles must be dissolved by lung fluids before either a local or systemic effect can be produced. 例如,有毒混合物和空中顆粒必須在產生局部或系統效果之前被肺液溶解.Thus, laboratory-scale simulation of the availability characteristics of a chemical species can provide a necessary link between its presence and its eventual impact.因此,實驗室范圍的化學物種有效性特征的模擬可以提供一個關于它的存在與最終影響之間的聯系. Environmental effect環境影響

The final link in the analytical/environmental effects chain involves determination of the actual environment effect produced.在分析環境影響的鏈子中,最后一個連接包含了實際產生環境影響的鑒定. In most cases, this involves some form of biological measurement or bioassay which determines the toxicological effect upon a biological organism.在大部分事件中,這包含了一些生物測定的形式或生物鑒定,以確定一個有機生物的毒性影響.Due to the

expense, complexity, and time-consuming nature of bioassays, it is usual to substitute a chemical analysis for purposes of monitoring toxicological effects, and in setting standards for compliance. 由于生物鑒定的花費,復雜性和耗時性,所以經常用化學分析代替監控毒理學的作用目的,同時要設定遵守的標準.In doing so, however, it is necessary to establish a so-called dose-response relationship between the level of one or more pollutant species and the degree of toxic impact.然而,這樣做的同時,是有必要建立一個關于一個或多個污染物的級別與毒性影響等級之間的作用--反應關系,

Unit 5 Type and Sources of Air Pollutants

空氣污染物的類型和來源

What is air pollution? Air pollution is normally defined as air that contains one or more chemicals in high enough concentration to harm humans, other animals, vegetation or materials. 什么是空氣污染 ?空氣污染通常是指那種包含一種或多種化學物質富集到高濃度并足以傷害人類、其他動物、植物或材料的空氣。There are two major types of air pollution.主要有兩種類型的空氣污染 。A primary air pollution is a chemical added directly to the air that occurs in a harmful concentration.初級空氣污染是指有害的濃度直接進入到空氣中的化學物質。It can be a natural air component, such as carbon dioxide, that rise above its normal concentration, or something not usually found in the air, such as a lead compound emitted by cars burning leaded gasoline. 這種化學物質可以是一個自然的空氣成分,如超過了正常濃度的二氧化碳,,或通常不會在空氣中發現的,如汽車燃燒含鉛汽油所排放出來的主要尾氣。A secondary air pollution is a harmful chemical formed in the atmosphere through a chemical reaction among air components.次生空氣污染是指在大氣中由氣體成分之間發生化學反應的有害化學物質。Serious air pollution usually results over a city or other area that is emitting high levels of pollutants during a period of air stagnation.嚴重的空氣污染通常是因為一個城市或其他地區在空氣流動停滯期間排放了高濃度污染物。The geographic location of some heavily populated cities, such as Los Angeles and Mexico City, makes them particularly susceptible to frequent air stagnation and pollution buildup.一些人口稠密的城市的地理位置,例如洛杉磯和墨西哥城,使他們特別容易受到頻繁的空氣停滯和空氣污染累積的影響。

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We must be careful about depending solely on concentration values in determining the severity air pollutants.在僅從濃度來決定嚴重空氣污染物方面,我們必須十分小心。 By themselves , measured concentrations tell us nothing about the danger caused by pollutants , because threshold levels , synergy, and biological magnification are also determining factors.通過測出的濃度自身并不能告知我們有關污染物所帶來的危險的信息,因為臨界濃度、協同作用還有生物放大效應都是決定因素。In addition, we run into the issue of conflicting views of what constitutes harm. 除此之外,我們碰到關于什么才構成危害的問題的爭論。

Major air pollutants following are the 11major types of air pollutants. 以下11個主要類型的空氣污染物是主要空氣污染物: 1 .Carbon oxides: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.

1. 碳氧化物: 一氧化碳 , 二氧化碳。 2. Sulfur oxides: sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide.

2. 硫氧化物: 二氧化硫 , 三氧化硫。

3. Nitrogen oxides: nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide. 3. 氮氧化物: 一氧化二氮 , 一氧化氮 , 二氧化氮.

4. Hydrocarbons (organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen): methane, butane, benzene. 4. 碳氫化合物(有機含有碳氫化合物): 甲烷 丁烷 苯。 5. Photochemical oxidants: ozone, PAN, and various aldehydes. 5. 光化學氧化劑: 臭氧,一組過氧酰基硝酸酯 和 各種醛。

6. Particulates (solid particles or liquid droplets suspended in air): smoke, dust, soot, asbestos, metallic particles (such as lead, beryllium cadmium), oil, salt spray, sulfate salts. 6. 顆粒(在空氣中的固體顆粒或液滴懸浮):煙霧,塵埃,煙塵,石棉,金屬粒子(例如鉛,鎘鈹),石

油,鹽霧,鹽硫酸。

7. Other inorganic compounds: asbestos, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, sulfur acid, nitric acid. 7. 其他無機化合物:石棉,氟化氫,硫化氫,氨氣,硫酸,硝酸。

8. Other organic compounds: pesticides, herbicides, various alcohols, acids, and other chemicals.

8. 其他有機化合物: 殺蟲劑, 除草劑, 各種醇, 酸 和 其他化學品。 9. Radioactive substances: tritium, radon, emissions from fossil fuel and nuclear power plants.

9. 放射性物質: 氚, 氡, 礦物燃料排放物 和 核能發電廠。 10. Heat. 10. 熱。 11. Noise. 11. 噪聲。

The following table summarizes the major sources of these pollutants. Carbon oxides Carbon Monoxide (CO) :

Forest fires and decaying organic matter; incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (about two-thirds of total emissions) and other organic matter in cars and furnaces; cigarette smoke森林火災和腐爛的有機物質;不完全燃燒礦物燃料(約占三分之二的總量)和其他來自汽車和爐的有機質;香煙煙霧

Carbon dioxide (CO2) : Natural aerobic respiration of living organisms; burning of fossil fuels 自然有氧呼吸的生物體; 燃燒化石燃料 Sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3) :Combustion of sulfur-containing coal and oil in homes, industries and Power plants; smelting

of sulfur-containing ores; volcanic eruptions 家庭、工廠和發電廠燃燒含硫的煤和石油;冶煉含硫礦石;火山爆發

Particulates dust soot and oil : 煤煙粉塵顆粒物和石油

forests fires , wind erosion, and volcanic eruptions; coal burning; farming, mining construction, road building ,and other land-clearing activities; chemical reactions in the atmosphere; dust stirred up by automobiles; automobile exhaust; coal-burning electric power and industrial plants 森林火災,風蝕,和火山爆發; 燃煤; 農業,采礦工程,道路建設,以及其他土地清理活動; 大氣中的化學反應;汽車引發的粉塵 ;汽車尾氣;燃煤電力廠房和工業廠房

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Nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2):

High-temperature fuel combustion in motor vehicles and industrial and fossil fuel power plants; lighting 高溫燃料燃燒機動車輛,工業和礦物燃料發電廠;照明 Photochemical oxidants 光化學氧化劑

Sunlight acting on hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides 碳氫化合物和氮氧化物在陽光下反應 Hydrocarbons 碳氫化合物

Incomplete combustion fossil fuels in automobiles and furnaces; evaporation of industrial solvents and oil spills; tobacco smoke; forest fires; plant decay (about 85 percent of emissions ) 不完全燃燒化石燃料的汽車和火爐;蒸發的工業溶劑和石油泄漏;煙草煙霧;森林火災;植物的腐爛(大約百分之85的排放) Pesticides and herbicides :

Agriculture; forestry; mosquito control農業;林業;蚊蟲控制

Asbestos:石棉Asbestos mining; spraying of fireproofing insulation in buildings; deterioration of brake linings 石棉

開采;防火隔熱建筑的噴漆;制動片的變質

Metals and Metal Compounds: 金 屬 和 金 屬 化合 物

Mining; industrial processes; coal burning; automobile exhaust挖掘;工業生產過程;燃煤;汽車尾氣 Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S): Chemical industry; petroleum refining化學工業;石油煉制 Ammonia (NH3) : Chemical industry; petroleum refining化學工業;石油煉制 Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) :

Reaction of sulfur trioxide and water vapor in atmosphere; Chemical industry三氧化硫和水汽在大氣中反應; 化學工業

Nitric Acid (HNO3) :

Reaction of sulfur trioxide and water vapor in atmosphere;

Chemical industry三氧化硫和水汽在大氣中反應; 化學工業 Noise : Automobiles, airplanes, and trains; industry; construction

汽車,飛機,列車;產業建設

Other Inorganic Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) :

Petroleum refining; glass etching; aluminum and fertilizer production 石油煉制;玻璃刻蝕;鋁和化肥生產

Exercises

4 .To eacape the smog you might go home, close the doors and windows, and breathe in clean air. But a number of scientists have found that the air inside homes and offices is often more polluted and dangerous than outdoor air on a smoggy day. The indoor pollutants include: (1) nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide from gas and wood-burning stoves(爐) without adequate(適當的) ventilation(通風); (2) carbon monoxide, soot(煤煙),and cancer-causing benzopyrene(苯并芘) (from cigarette smoke); (3) various(各種) organic compounds(化合物) from aerosol(氣溶膠、氣霧劑、煙霧劑) spray(噴射) cans and cleaning products; (4) formaldehyde(甲醛) (which causes cancer in rats) from urea-formaldehyde(尿素甲醛) foam(泡沫材料) insulation(絕緣材料),plywood(夾板),carpet(地毯) adhesives(黏合劑),and particle(微粒) board; (5)radioactive(放射性的) radon and some of its decay(衰退) products from stone, soil, cement(水泥),and bricks(磚);and (6) ozone(臭氧) from the use of electrostatic air cleaners. 為了逃避煙霧,你需要回到家中,關閉門窗,并且在干凈的空氣中呼吸。但一些科學家發現,在煙霧彌漫的日子,家中以及辦公室中的空氣經常比室外的空氣含有更多的污染物和危險物。室內污染物包括:(1)來源于煤氣以及在沒有適當的通風下火爐中木的燃燒所產生的二氧化氮和一氧化碳;(2)一氧化碳,煤煙,致癌物質苯并芘(來源于香煙);(3)從氣霧劑噴射罐和清潔用品揮發的各種有機物化合物;(4)從尿素甲醛泡沫絕緣材料、夾板、地毯黏合劑和微粒木板中散發出的甲醛(可以在老鼠身上致癌);(5)放射性射線

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