Health experts have known for years that kids who grow up on a farm have fewer incidences than city kids. Now they might finally know why. And that bit of information might be the clue they need to develop a vaccine(疫苗) for asthma(哮喘)and better treatment strategies for allergies.
A new study published in the New England Journal of Medicine compared 30 Amish children and 30 Hutterite children from two farming groups in North Dakota. Researchers chose these children because asthma is rare among the Amish but common among the Hutterites, even though the groups have similar genetic backgrounds and diets and very little exposure to tobacco smoke, polluted air and indoor pets. The one key difference lies in their farming methods: The Amish reject electricity and industrialization, while the Hutterites embrace it. And because of this, the children are exposed to different microbes(微生物).
“We never thought we would see a difference,” Carole Ober, an author of the study and the chairwoman of the department of human genetics at the University of Chicago, told the New York Times. But to their great surprise, “we saw great differences with very, very different cell types and cell numbers.”
The Amish children all had a large proportion of neutrophils—white blood cells that are part of the so-called inborn immune system. The Amish kids’ neutrophils “were newly found in their bone marrow, evidence of a continual low-grade reaction to microbial invaders(入侵者),” the New York Times reports. In contrast, the Hutterite kids had “old” neutrophils, and researchers found their blood was full of another type of immune cell, eosinophils, which provoke allergic reactions.
“I keep saying if everyone would just put a cow in their house, no kid would have asthma, but that's not very practical,” Ober told Live Science. Instead, Ober predicts an air mister parents could use to spray the beneficial microbes into the air.
58. What can we know about the Hutterite group according to Paragraph 2? A. The air is heavily polluted due to industrialization.
B. They have a fatter chance to catch asthma and allergies. C. Their family members are addicted to cigarette smoking. D. Modern machines are widely used instead of farm animals.
59. Which of the following can be added to the differences between the two groups?
A. genetic background B. immune system C. health care D. educational level 60. By jokingly suggesting having a cow in their house, Ober intends to tell us that ________. A. keeping a toy cow is more practical
B. we should get exposed to indoor pets C. unhealthy living styles should be avoided
D. farm environment helps fight Asthma and Allergies
As e-cigarettes become more popular, fewer people are taking up smoking traditional cigarettes. But can e-cigarettes, an electronic nicotine delivery system, help people quit smoking altogether? The answer is probably yes. A study led by Matthew Carpenter, a professor at the Medical University of South Carolina found that e-smokers tend to smoke less and have increased quit attempts.
In the pilot study, Carpenter evaluated e-cigarettes in terms of usage, product preference, changes in smoking behaviors and nicotine exposure. Ninety subjects were evaluated: 45 were randomized to use e-cigarettes, and 45 were randomized to a control group. Everyone was followed over a period of four months. The study was published in Cancer Epidemiology in November and is one of the few randomized studies in the U.S. to examine the effects of e-cigarettes.
Results showed that when smokers were given e-cigarettes, uptake was strong. Many participants rated the e-cigarettes similar to their usual product, suggesting that e-cigarettes might give smokers a suitable alternative to combustible(燃燒的) cigarettes. E-cigarettes offer significantly less exposure to harmful toxicants and therefore are safer. People using e-cigarettes throughout the study smoked an average of 37 percent fewer cigarettes, as compared to those in the control group, showing a positive effect when making the switch and potentially serving as a tool to help smokers quit.
That’s good news for Carpenter and his colleagues. Smoking is the leading cause of cancer and has a negative impact on the effectiveness of cancer treatments. People who quit smoking, regardless of their ages, have substantial gains in life expectancy(預期壽命) compared with those who continue to smoke.
Carpenter cautions that while e-cigarettes may help people smoke less or even quit, they are not for everyone. “It is important to protect non-smokers, particularly adolescents, from starting any nicotine-containing product.”
More than 1,500 varieties of e-cigarettes are now available, including different looks, high-tech power settings and many flavors. All these make them more appealing to kids. In fact, e-cigarettes are more popular than conventional cigarettes among youth. “All these should raise our alarm bells,” he said.
E-cigarettes were only recently regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. Largely manufactured overseas, the quality control process varies, he says. Without enough information to answer the long-term public health issues of e-cigarettes, researchers like Carpenter are aware of the importance of further studies on the latest tobacco trends. Combustible cigarettes have been around for many decades. E-cigarettes have not, and the science has a lot of questions left to answer, he said.
61. Which of the following is TRUE about Professor Carpenter’s experiment on e-cigarettes? A. The test groups include conventional smokers, e-smokers and non-smokers. B. E-cigarettes expose smokers to fewer poisonous substances.
C. Many participants don’t think e-cigarettes as good as traditional ones. D. It is one of the few studies to test the effects of smoking. 62. After reading the passage, we may infer that ________. A. most e-cigarette smokers will finally give up smoking
B. there are more e-smokers than traditional smokes in the USA
C. many adolescents are attracted to e-cigarettes due to their low prices D. carpenter is worried about the e-cigarettes’ popularity among children 63. What can be concluded from the last paragraph?
A. E-cigarettes are faced with many problems and need more study.
B. The U.S. government should strengthen its regulation over e-cigarettes. C. Smokers should be cautious because of e-cigarettes’ low quality.
D. Researchers are concerned about e-cigarettes’ harm to people’s health. 64. What is the structure of the passage? (① to ⑦ represent Paragraphs 1 to 7)
A. B. C. D. ① ① ①② ①②
②③ ④⑤⑥ ②③④ ⑤⑥ ③④ ⑤⑥ ③④⑤ ⑥
⑦ ⑦ ⑦ ⑦
Useless jugglers(騙子)! Must we so describe ourselves, we, the producers, season by season, of so many hundreds of “remarkable” works of fiction? — for, when we take up the remarkable works of our fellows, we “really cannot read them!”.
A story goes like this:
Once in the twilight undergrowth of a forest of nut-bearing trees a number of little purblind creatures wandered, singing for nuts. A traveler one day stopped one of these creatures whose voice was peculiarly disagreeable, and asked “Why do you sing like this? Is it for the sake of those up there? Is it for your own sake—for the sake of your family—for whose sake? Do you think your songs worth listening to? Answer!”
The creature scratched itself, and sang the louder. 1. ________
He left the creature, and presently came to another which wandered round in a ring under some stunted trees, and the traveler noticed that it never went out of that ring.
Showers of tiny hard nuts came down on the little creature, who ate them greedily. The traveler opened one; it was extremely small and tasted of dry rot.
“Why, at all events,” he said, “need you stay under these trees? The nuts are not good here.” But for answer the little creature ran round and round, and round and round. 2. ________
He came to a third little creature who, under a tall tree, was singing very loudly indeed. The creature stopped singing as the traveler came up, and at once a storm of huge nuts came down; the traveler found them sweetish and very oily.
“Why,” he said to the creature, “did you sing so loud? You cannot eat all these nuts. You really do sing louder than seems necessary; come, answer me!”
But the purblind little creature began to sing again at the top of its voice. 3. ________
The traveler passed many other purblind little creatures in the twilight of this forest, till at last he came
to one that looked even blinder than the rest, but whose song was sweet and low and clear, breaking a perfect stillness. For a long time he listened to that song without noticing that not a nut was falling. But suddenly he heard a faint rustle and three little oval nuts lay on the ground.
The traveler cracked one of them. It was of delicate flavor. He looked at the little creature standing with its face raised, and said:
“Tell me, little blind creature, whose song is so charming, is this all you get to eat? “Ah! ” wondered the traveler again: “You, whose voice is so clear, where did you learn to sing?”
The little blind creature smiled . . . 4. ________
It is a twilight forest in which we wander, and we may complain why the light is so dim; why there is so much bad and false fiction; why the demand for it is so great. We must lay the blame on ourselves. We ourselves create the demand for bad and false fiction. Sensibly, or insensibly, we tune our songs to earn the nuts of our twilight forest. We tune them, not to the key of: “Is it good?” but to the key of: “Will it pay?” so that at each tuning the nuts fall fast! For many of us, once started on this journey of fiction, there is much, often tragic, excuse—the less reason then for not having trained ourselves before setting out on our way. If we will not put ourselves to school when we are young; if we must rush into print before we can spell; if we will not repress our natural desires and walk before we run; if we will not learn at least what not to do—we shall go on wandering through the forest, singing our foolish songs. 65. From Paragraph 1, we can know that the author is a ________. A. juggler B. traveler C. publisher D. fictionist 66. Which of the following do you think is the right image in the story?
A. The traveler refers to the aimless publishers. B. The twilight represents the bad taste of readers. C. The nuts stand for remarkable works of fiction. D. The purblind creatures mean different novelists.
67. The sentence “ ‘I suppose,’ said the traveler, ‘small bad nuts are better than no bread; if you went out
you would starve?’ ’’ is probably put in blank ________. A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 68. How do you understand the underlined sentence?
A. A good novel usually takes great efforts to create. B. Books are the source of inspiration for a novelist. C. Some novelists are excellent but poorly rewarded. D. Readers have few choices in choosing good books. 69. What does the last paragraph imply? A. The demand for bad fiction is great. B. The author often produces false books. C. Some of “us” are not qualified for the job. D. Tragically, “we” can not solve the problem.
70. Which of the following can be the best title of the passage?
A. Wanted improvement B. Foolish songs C. A disordered market D. A wise traveler
The human voice is the instrument we all play. It’s the most powerful sound in the world. It’s the only one that can start a war or say “I love you.” And yet many people have the experience that when they speak, people don’t listen to them. Why is that? How can we speak powerfully to make change in the world?
There are a number of habits that we need to move away from. The first is gossip, speaking ill of somebody who's not present. The second is judging. It’s very hard to listen to somebody if you know that you’re being judged and found wanting at the same time. Another is negativity. It’s hard to listen when somebody’s that negative. And another form of negativity is complaining. We complain about almost everything. It’s not spreading sunshine and lightness in the world. The next is excuse. Some people just pass it on to everybody else and don’t take responsibility for their actions. Exaggeration is the sixth of the seven, which usually becomes lying. We don’t want to listen to people we know are lying to us. The last is dogmatism, the confusion of facts with opinions.
There are four really powerful cornerstones that we can stand on if we want our speech to be powerful and to make change in the world. Fortunately, these things spell a word “hail”. The H stands for honesty, being true in what you say, being straight and clear. However, absolute honesty may not be what we want. It's not necessary to say “my goodness, you look ugly this morning.” The A is authenticity, just being ourselves. The I is integrity（一致）, doing what we say. And the L is love. It doesn't mean romantic love, but means wishing people well. That’s what we say.
The way that we say it is also important. The instrument is incredible and the tools you play with will increase the power of our speaking. The first is register (音域). We can locate our voice. We vote for politicians with lower voices, it’s true, because we associate depth with power and with authority. Timbre(音色), the way our voice feels, also matters. Some research shows that we prefer voices which are rich, smooth, warm, like hot chocolate. Then prosody(韻律) counts. People who speak all on one note are really quite hard to listen to if they don’t have any prosody at all. Another is pace. We can get very excited by saying something really quickly, or we can slow right down to emphasize. There’s nothing wrong with a bit of silence in a talk. It can be very powerful. Finally, we can get really excited by using volume. We can have people really pay attention by getting very quiet. If that’s not us, that’s not the end of the world, because we can train. Go and get a voice coach.
Of course, where this all comes into play most of all is when we’ve got something really important to do. It might be proposing marriage or asking for a raise. No engine works well without being warmed up. Warm up our voice.
How to speak so that people want to listen Passage outline Supporting details ·10·